Module - Clinical Gait Analysis


Work-based learning outcomes


  1. Undertake clinical interviews with patients as part of CGA
  2. Conduct physical/clinical examinations of patients
  3. Collect and process clinical gait data for a range of clinical presentations
  4. Interpret and report on the results from 1–3, above, demonstrating an understanding of the limitations of the techniques used
  5. Undertake system preparation, including calibration and quality assurance checks, as appropriate for use

Work-based Competencies


Learning outcome Title Knowledge
1 1

Under supervision and according to local protocols, conduct a clinical interview with a patient and/or their guardians/carers

  • Basis/limitations of local protocols and national guidelines
  • Use of formal processes for effective data collection
2 2

Under supervision, perform a physical/clinical assessment and compare your data with local or published reference ranges

  • Relevant anatomy and physiology, especially the musculoskeletal system
  • Measurement of joint angles/ranges
  • Assessment of spasticity, strength, selective control
  • Local protocol for patient appointment and clinical examination
  • Experience clinical examinations in other laboratories and also in rehabilitation centres or departments that do not have access to a gait lab (eg physiotherapy department)
  • Need for and basis/limitations of local protocols and national guidelines
  • Selection of appropriate assessment measures
  • Relevance of local and published data sets to patient data
3 3

Interpret and report the results of the clinical assessment

  • Link between clinical assessment and pathology
  • Normal ranges for clinical examination test data
  • Impact of patient state and co-operation on data collected
  • The importance of accuracy and limitations of clinical assessment
  • Typical errors/difficulties in assessment, eg measurement and physical positioning of limbs
4 3

Place markers on patients in the correct positions according to local protocols/national  guidelines

  • Surface anatomy and palpation
  • How inter- and intravariability affect results
  • Biomechanical model used in the assessment locally and elsewhere
  • Local protocols for marker placement
  • Need for and basis/limitations of local protocols and national guidelines
  • Collection, processing and interpretation of data as described in a quality assurance system
5 3

Conduct  Electromyography (EMG) examination relevant to a biomechanical assessment

  • Surface anatomy and palpation
  • How inter- and intravariability affect results
  • Biomechanical model used in the assessment locally and elsewhere
  • Local protocols for marker placement
  • Need for and basis/limitations of local protocols and national guidelines
  • Collection, processing and interpretation of data as described in a quality assurance system
6 3

Collect kinematic, kinetic and other data from patients with movement disorders Use complementary clinical methods to further detail the mechanical impairments and functional deficits of these patients

  • Selection of test appropriate to the referral
  • Prioritisation of data collection by assessing patient ability and determining relative importance of data
  • Application of local protocols and national guidelines
  • Use and relevance of functional scales, eg Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Gross Motor Function Measurement Score (GMFCS), in qualifying/quantifying deficit
7 3

Process kinematic, kinetic and other data, identifying and appropriately managing/removing  artefacts

  • Identification and application of appropriate processing techniques to biomechanical assessment data
  • How to relate data to visual and video assessment of patient
  • Local protocols and national guidelines
  • Selection of appropriate ‘normal’ data set for comparison
8 4

Prepare and present a report for the clinical team, summarising findings and interpretation of the data, using alternative presentations of the data to emphasise particular findings

  • Appropriate combination of data from different sources
  • How to relate data to pathology
  • Need for and basis/limitations of local protocols and national guidelines
  • Use/limitations of the data sets (eg clinical examination, kinematic and kinetic) collected in defining the factors impacting on the patient’s gait/mobility
  • Alternative data presentations eg gait profile score and angle/angle plots
  • Importance of team approach in data interpretation
9 5

Perform system checks and calibration tests on a number of pieces of equipment in the laboratory

  • The importance of calibration of equipment
  • The effect of equipment error and results in data
  • Need for regular system checks and equipment calibration
  • Rationale used locally in setting acceptable limits of operation of equipment
  • Limitations of system check and calibration techniques
  • Awareness of national standards
10 5

Perform task-specific risk assessments

  • Identification of potential risk
  • Identification of potential ways to minimise risk
  • How to contribute to the process of risk assessment review
  • The importance of taking responsibility, under supervision, for an aspect of the risk review
  • Application of local and national risk assessment guidelines/procedures
  • Appreciation of the limitations of local procedures
  • How to undertake a critical literature review of alternative models in relation to range of patients analysed locally
  • Principles of biomechanical modelling
  • Process of developing a biomechanical model
  • Process of testing/validating a new biomechanical model
  • Euler angles and other methods for representing motion
  • Specification of a marker set and the development of technical and anatomical reference frames
11 5

Compare the standard biomechanical model used locally to alternative models by considering and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of each

  • Identification of potential risk
  • Identification of potential ways to minimise risk
  • How to contribute to the process of risk assessment review
  • The importance of taking responsibility, under supervision, for an aspect of the risk review
  • Application of local and national risk assessment guidelines/procedures
  • Appreciation of the limitations of local procedures
  • How to undertake a critical literature review of alternative models in relation to range of patients analysed locally
  • Principles of biomechanical modelling
  • Process of developing a biomechanical model
  • Process of testing/validating a new biomechanical model
  • Euler angles and other methods for representing motion
  • Specification of a marker set and the development of technical and anatomical reference frames

Work-based assessment


Complete 4 Case-Based Discussion(s)
Complete 3 of the following DOPS and/or OCEs
Type Title
DOPS Perform system tests and QA checks on the laboratory equipment.
DOPS Prepare and calibrate the laboratory and its equipment, ready for clinical data collection.
DOPS Analyse and interpret the data/information obtained from the history and physical assessment, and compare your data to local or published reference ranges.
DOPS Process and report data and appropriately manage/remove artefacts
DOPS Interpret the data obtained and complete a clinical report appropriate to a multi-disciplinary audience.
DOPS Complete a risk assessment relevant to the modality and produce an action plan to manage the risk.
OCE Review the information contained in the referral to determine the reason for referral, clarify this with the patient and identify their personal aims/objectives
OCE Gain consent from a patient for the assessment; explain to the patient the steps to be taken during the assessment.
OCE Take a patient history relevant to the modality
OCE Carry out a physical assessment of a patient, following SOPs, to inform the assessment.
OCE Place markers on patients in the correct positions according to the laboratory's SOP
OCE Collect gait data, as relevant to the referral and the patient's abilities and physical limitations.
OCE Lead or take an active role in a multi- disciplinary case conference, leading to recommendations for future treatments; understand this in the wider clinical setting.
OCE Explain the relevant and critical findings of the assessment to the patient, related to the reason for referral and the patient aims