Module - Systems Development and Design (SBI131)

STP

Aim of this module

This module will provide an opportunity for trainees to develop a more detailed understanding of the different approaches to the specification, design and delivery of systems. The trainee will know when and how best to apply them in a way that is likely to result in systems delivering target benefits, fulfilling user expectations, maximising patient safety and providing value for money. The module will examine and appraise the evolution of systems development approaches from the 1960s to the present day and provide opportunities for students to consider how different approaches to systems development could have resulted in different outcomes for a range of national and regional system procurements. Trainees will be provided with an opportunity to critically appraise a current live project and make suggestions on alternative approaches that could have been adopted, and how it could be improved. Trainees will apply their detailed understanding of the different approaches to the specification, design, verification and delivery of systems to gather data to define system requirements. The trainee will apply their knowledge in a way that results in systems delivering target benefits, fulfilling user expectations, maximising patient safety and providing value for money. Trainees will be provided with an opportunity to critically appraise a current live project and make suggestions on alternative approaches that could have been adopted and how it could be improved.

Work-based learning outcomes


  1. Recommend and justify a system design plan and procurement approach to an informatics lead.
  2. Perform a system requirements-gathering exercise, develop a specification of requirements and present findings in a functional requirement document to all stakeholders.
  3. Critically appraise a systems design/development plan to determine suitability of existing services.
  4. Select and apply systems development methodologies to a range of projects in the workplace, including at least one in a healthcare science setting.
  5. Review the flow of information between systems and across organisational boundaries and identify how an existing (recent) project has improved outcomes.
  6. Review or develop the requirements across an organisational enterprise architecture.

Work-based Competencies


Learning outcome Title Knowledge
1 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Apply information governance principles and best practice in the workplace, including confidentiality.

  • The legislation, regulatory guidance and NHS protocols regarding the security, confidentiality and appropriate sharing of patient identifiable information.
  • Role of the Caldicott Guardian.
  • The different arrangements and the associated responsibilities of clinical staff for security of all types of clinical information, especially electronically held, and for using such data for ‘secondary’ purposes.
2 1

Select an approach to system design for a local system change or procurement project.

  • System design methodologies and their application in design, procurement and deployment of an information system.
  • Business process analysis and predictive modelling techniques.
  • Systems thinking principles.
  • System integration principles.
  • Key principles in (system) design, including accessibility and usability for disabled, vulnerable and/or marginalised individuals and communities.
  • Cognitive task analysis tools and techniques.
3 1

Appraise the options for procuring the system required to meet the needs of the local project.

  • Options appraisal methodologies.
  • Methods and frameworks for developing and applying business cases.
  • Project, programme and change management methodologies, tools and techniques.
  • Procurement: the acquisition of products, services, or people from an external source, including relevant rules, regulations and frameworks.
  • Contract and third party management: processes, mechanisms and frameworks for establishing, running and managing contracts with third parties.
  • Commercial models.
  • Commercial sector interface with the public sector.
4 1

Present your recommendations to a peer group and the supervisor using the correct nomenclature relating to project documentation.

  • Report writing best practice.
  • Business case writing principles.
  • Presentation techniques.
5 2

Perform a system requirements gathering exercise and analyse and interpret the data, applying the appropriate quality management processes.

  • The importance of accurately defining the requirements of a system.
  • Functional: what the product should do.
  • Data requirements: capture the type, volatility, size/amount, persistence, accuracy and the amounts of the required data.
  • Environmental requirements: (a) context of use; (b) social environment (e.g. collaboration and coordination): (c) how good is user support likely to be; (d) what technologies will it run on.
  • User requirements: capture the characteristics of the intended user group.
  • Usability requirement: usability goals associated measures for a particular product.
  • Data gathering techniques, including questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, naturalistic observation, studying documentation.
  • How to classify the task.
  • How to identify an appropriate stakeholder group.
  • Data interpretation and analysis.
  • Use cases.
  • Task descriptions.
  • Task analysis.
  • Requirements management.
  • Requirement of description documents.
  • Range of tools available.
  • Benefits identification and measurement.
  • Patient safety aspects of system design
  • Usability and accessibility.
6 2

Document requirements and communicate the results of a system requirements gathering exercise in writing and verbally.

  • The importance of accurately defining the requirements of a system.
  • Functional: what the product should do.
  • Data requirements: capture the type, volatility, size/amount, persistence, accuracy and the amounts of the required data.
  • Environmental requirements: (a) context of use; (b) social environment (e.g. collaboration and coordination): (c) how good is user support likely to be; (d) what technologies will it run on.
  • User requirements: capture the characteristics of the intended user group.
  • Usability requirement: usability goals associated measures for a particular product.
  • Data gathering techniques, including questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, naturalistic observation, studying documentation.
  • How to classify the task.
  • How to identify an appropriate stakeholder group.
  • Data interpretation and analysis.
  • Use cases.
  • Task descriptions.
  • Task analysis.
  • Requirements management.
  • Requirement of description documents.
  • Range of tools available.
  • Benefits identification and measurement.
  • Patient safety aspects of system design
  • Usability and accessibility.
7 3

Critically appraise a systems design/development plan, identifying problems and risks and issues; and proposing solutions and mitigations.

  • Systems design theory and methodologies.
  • Systems thinking.
  • Needs assessment.
  • Change management theory and practice.
  • Critical appraisal methodologies.
8 3

Write a report of your findings making recommendations for improvement and present these to your line manager and peers.

  • Report writing good practice.
  • Presentation techniques.
  • Effective communication theory and practice.
9 4

Apply systems development methodologies to a range of projects in the workplace.

  • Systems analysis.
  • Systems development methodologies and their application.
  • Process mapping.
10 4

Critically reflect on your experience of using systems development methodologies and share your conclusions with your line manager or supervisor.

  • Critical reflection principles and practice.
  • Effective communication principles and practice.
11 5

Review and document an information flow between systems and across organisational boundaries.

  • Organisational structures and governance arrangements in health and in social care.
  • Barriers to systems integration.
  • Examples of good practice in systems integration across organisational boundaries.
  • Information governance and ethical issues.
  • Data and information architectures and models.
  • Clinical and safety risks and issues.
12 5

Evaluate an existing (recent) project to determine how this has improved outcomes for patients and discuss how the learning from this might be incorporated into future systems.

  • Benefits tracking and appraisal methodologies.
  • Critical appraisal methodologies and practice.
  • Knowledge management principles and practice.
  • Patient safety risk and issues, and management and mitigation.
13 6

Identify instances where cross-organisational enterprise architecture has been unsuccessful and critically evaluate why this was and the lessons learnt.

  • Enterprise architecture domain methodologies.
  • How to link together business needs and technical solutions.
  • Characteristics of effective cross-organisational architecture solutions.
  • Barrier to the effective cross-organisational architecture solutions.
  • Current EU projects.
14 6

Review or develop the requirements across organisational enterprise architecture.

  • Enterprise architecture domain methodologies.
  • How to link together business needs and technical solutions.
  • Characteristics of effective cross-organisational architecture solutions.
  • Barrier to the effective cross-organisational architecture solutions.
  • Current EU projects.
15 6

Present and defend your findings in a written report and verbally to your line manager and peers.

  • Enterprise architecture domain methodologies.
  • How to link together business needs and technical solutions.
  • Characteristics of effective cross-organisational architecture solutions.
  • Barrier to the effective cross-organisational architecture solutions.
  • Current EU projects.

Work-based assessment


Complete 3 Case-Based Discussion(s)
Complete 2 of the following DOPS and/or OCEs
Type Title
DOPS Critically appraise a systems design development plan and present your findings
DOPS Investigate and present the benefits and issues surrounding the networking of medical devices this may include possible solutions
DOPS Apply a systems design methodology to an ICT informatics project
OCE Compare and contrast the information flows in at least two clinical settings, paying particular attention to the issues introduced by the chosen data collection systems
OCE Design a data collection method for a clinical research project taking particular note of information governance issues.
OCE Perform a requirements gathering exercise for the introduction of a system informatics solution with clinicians or other stakeholders