Module - Imaging With Non Ionising Radiation (SPE104)

STP

Aim of this module

To introduce the trainee to a range of equipment and techniques used in ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and non-imaging techniques, and understand the effects of image acquisition parameters

Work-based learning outcomes


 

  1. Assist with the use of harmonic imaging, contrast agents and Doppler techniques to maximise the diagnostic potential of ultrasound imaging, including determining blood flow. 
  2. Perform routine quality control measurements on ultrasound scanners, including general, small parts and cardiac scanners. 
  3. Perform routine quality control measurements on a clinical magnetic resonance scanner. 
  4. Discuss a range of normal and pathological images obtained using simple pulse sequences, and evaluate the effect of contrast media.
  5. Perform measurements and record the output of a range of equipment, g. lasers, ultraviolet (UV) and physiotherapy ultrasound.
  6. Perform the required safety and quality controls checks on a range of non-ionising, non-imaging equipment, for example lasers, UV and physiotherapy ultrasound. 
  7. Perform a risk assessment of a non-ionising radiation facility. 
  8. Undertake performance testing on a range of non-ionising equipment. 
  9. Identify and critically appraise the mode of operation and scientific principles of a new and emerging technology, and the evidence base underpinning the technology. 

Work-based Competencies


Learning outcome Title Knowledge
1 1

Use Doppler to determine blood flow characteristics, appropriately selecting harmonic imaging, Doppler and other techniques to maximise the diagnostic potential

  • The major applications and uses of ultrasound imaging in a range of common investigations.
  • The acquisition procedures of a range of common investigations.
  • Options available to support ultrasound diagnosis, including Doppler, harmonic imaging and contrast agents.
  • The options available to support ultrasound diagnosis, including Doppler, harmonic imaging and contrast agents.
  • Specialist uses of diagnostic ultrasound.
  • Acquisition of ultrasound in a range of common investigations.
2 1

Investigate the effects of user selectable parameters such as Time-gain compensation (TGC), gain, power, etc, on the viewable image

  • The effect of user’s electable parameters on the viewable image.
3 2

Perform routine quality control measurements on ultrasound scanners, including general, small parts and cardiac scanners

  • Performance criteria, including remedial and suspension levels, for a range of ultrasound scanners.
  • Phantoms available for assessing ultrasound scanner performance.
  • External factors affecting image displays.
  • Quality assurance of image display systems.
  • The range of measurements and which are appropriate for measuring non-ionising radiation equipment performance.
4 2

Make measurements of ultrasound power output

  • The bioeffects of ultrasound.
  • The risk factors associated with patient exposure to ultrasound.
5 3

Perform routine quality control measurements on a clinical magnetic resonance scanner

  • The basic role of the major components of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system.
  • UK and US MR quality procedures.
  • Distinction between acceptance, baseline and routine measurements.
6 4

Investigate the methods of varying the tissue contrast weighting using a contrast phantom

  • The role of imaging parameters in determining image contrast.
7 4

Review a range of normal and pathological images obtained in one common application using simple pulse sequences

  • Normal and pathological MR anatomy relevant to the common application.
  • Practical aspects of the patient imaging process, including health and safety, infection control, informed consent.
  • Image weighting in the context of MRI.
  • Benefits that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brings to the range of available imaging techniques.
  • Action and limitations of MR contrast agents.
8 5

Measure and record the output of a range of equipment, eg lasers, UV and physiotherapy ultrasound

  • Use and operation of a range of common non-ionising non-imaging applications, to include lasers, Ultraviolet (UV), lithotripsy, electron microscopy (EM), etc.
  • The physical principles behind different sources of non-ionising radiation.
  • Methods of measuring the output of lasers, UV and US equipment.
  • The use and operation of a range of common non-ionising non- imaging applications, to include; lasers, UV, lithotripsy, therapeutic ultrasound, EM etc.
  • Safety requirements in the use of non-ionising radiation.
  • A range of clinical applications for each technique.
  • The use and operation of a range of common non-ionising non- imaging applications, to include lasers, UV, lithotripsy, therapeutic ultrasound, EM, etc.
  • Safety requirements in the use of non-ionising radiation.
  • Differences in imaging and non-imaging techniques sharing a common physical principle.
9 6

Perform safety and quality control checks on a range of equipment, eg lasers, UV and physiotherapy ultrasound

  • Safety and quality controls checks required on a range of non- ionising non-imaging equipment.
  • National and International standards relating to equipment safety and quality control.
10 6

Measure and analyse quantitative measurements of non-imaging equipment performance

  • The range of measurements and which are appropriate for measuring non-imaging  equipment performance.
  • Principal scientific differences between imaging and non-imaging applications of non-ionising radiation.
11 7

Work safely in rooms where exposure to non-ionising radiation may present a hazard.

  • Safe practice in the handling of sources of non-ionising radiation.
  • Safety issues relevant to staff and patient in relation to common non-ionising options.
  • Safety information that should be given to patients either before and after exposure.
  • Methods of exposure reduction.
  • The risks associated with occupational and patient exposure to non-ionising radiation.
12 7

Perform a risk assessment of a non- ionising radiation facility.

  • Main items of legislation and sources of advice relevant to the use and exposure to non-ionising radiation, distinguishing between acts, regulations, codes of practice and guidance, and the controls available to ensure safe working practice within a non-ionising radiation facility.
13 8

Make patient exposure measurements and performance testing on a range of non-ionising equipment.

  • Choice of test equipment used in performance measurements in non-ionising radiation.
  • Likely and theoretical safety issues in relation to the exposure to non-ionising radiation.
  • Methods of exposure reduction.
  • Choice of method for detecting and measuring non-ionising radiation exposure.
  • Risks and the risk factors associated with patient exposure.
  • Uncertainties in the measurement of non-ionising radiation.
14 9

Critically appraise an emerging modality

  • Medical physics and the application of a chosen emerging technology.
  • Sources of information pertinent to operation and safety.
  • Mode of operation and scientific principles of new and emerging technologies.
  • Determination of exposure from the new technique.
  • Determination of the risks and benefits from new techniques and minimisation of the risks.
15 3

Undertake online and offline analysis and interpretation of the results.

  • The range of measurements and which are appropriate for measuring non-ionising radiation equipment performance.
  • Distinction between acceptance, baseline and routine measurements.

Work-based assessment


Complete 1 Case-Based Discussion(s)
Complete 1 of the following DOPS and/or OCEs
Type Title
DOPS Measure the output of a source of non ionising radiation
DOPS Perform a risk assessment of a non ionising radiation facility
DOPS Measure and analyse quantitative equipment performance
DOPS Measure and analyse quantitative imaging equipment performance