Disorders of Red and White Blood Cells (SLS124)

10 credits

Aim of this module

These modules provide the trainee with the knowledge that underpins the specialist module in Haematology and Transfusion Science and provides trainees with the knowledge and understanding that underpins and is applied to work-based learning.

This module will provide the trainee with the knowledge and understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of a range of disorders associated with abnormalities of red cell, white cell and haemostatic parameters. In the work-based module they will be expected to apply this knowledge as they perform methods related to red cell, white cell and haemostatic function and gain experience of the interpretation of patient results in a variety of clinical settings.

  1. Perform a range of laboratory and molecular techniques used in the workplace investigate anaemia, red cell disorders.
  2. Perform a range of laboratory and molecular techniques used in the workplace to investigate white cell disorders.
  3. Identify appropriate clinical and laboratory investigations and outline the management of acquired and hereditary red cell disorders.
  4. Identify appropriate clinical and laboratory investigations and outline the management of non-malignant white cell disorders.
  5. Perform quality assurance and control tasks across the range of investigations associated with the investigation of red and white blood cell disorders.
Number Work-based learning outcome Title Knowledge
1 1,5

Perform methods for the investigation of anaemia including the following:

  • iron deficiency anaemia
  • anaemia of inflammation
  • megaloblastic anaemia
  • hereditary haemolytic anaemias
  • acquired haemolytic anaemias.
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2 1,5

Perform methods for the investigation of a range of hereditary red cell disorders, including the following:

  • sickle cell disease (SCD)
  • thalassaemias
  • other haemoglobin variants
  • red cell enzymopathies
  • red cell membrane defects.
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3 2,5

Perform methods for the investigation of non-malignant white cell disorders including:

  • automated quantitation of white cells, including white cell differential
  • blood film morphology
  • infectious mononucleosis screen.
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4 3

Interpret haematology data in light of clinical details and authorise reports under supervision of patients with anaemia, including:

  • iron deficiency anaemia
  • anaemia of inflammation
  • megaloblastic anaemia
  • hereditary haemolytic anaemias
  • acquired haemolytic anaemias.
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5 3

Interpret haematology data in light of clinical details and authorise reports under supervision of patients with a range of hereditary red cell disorders, including the following:

  • SCD
  • thalassaemias
  • other haemoglobin variants,
  • red cell enzymopathies
  • red cell membrane defects.
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6 3

Interpret laboratory data and reports from the national screening programme for SCD and thalassaemia.

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7 4

Interpret haematology data in light of clinical details and authorise reports under supervision on patients with at least one of the following of white cell disorders:

  • lymphopenia
  • neutropenia
  • leucocytosis
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8 3,4

Identify cases requiring urgent intervention and be able to offer suggest clinical advice on follow-up and/or further management.

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You must complete
2 Case-based discussion(s)
2 of the following DOPS / OCEs
Assessment Title Type
Authorise test report for patients with Lymphocytopenia DOPS
Authorise reports for patients with Neutropenia DOPS
Authorise test reports reports for patients with Leucocytosis DOPS
Authorise reports patients with platelet disorders including at least one of the following Congenital disorders Thrombocytopenia Myeloproliferative disorders rugs eg aspirin DOPS
Perform investigation of Blood film morphology, Infectious mononucleosis screen DOPS
Authorise reports under supervision on patients with a range of anaemias DOPS
Authorise written reports under supervision on patients with a range of hereditary red cell disorders DOPS
Attend a haematology outpatient clinic and take a patient history OCE
Attend an out patient clinic and take a patient history from a patient with a red cell disorder OCE
Attend an out patient clinic and take a patient history from a patient with a red cell disorder OCE

Important information

The academic parts of this module will be detailed and communicated to you by your university. Please contact them if you have questions regarding this module and its assessments. The module titles in your MSc may not be exactly identical to the work-based modules shown in the e-portfolio. Your modules will be aligned, however, to ensure that your academic and work-based learning are complimentary.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Describe common dietary and acquired anaemias and hereditary red cell disorders.
  2. Explain the molecular basis, presentation, diagnosis and management of haemoglobinopathies and thalassaemia.
  3. Discuss and evaluate the principles and practice of the national screening programme for sickle cell disease and thalassaemia.
  4. Discuss the diversity, investigation, diagnosis and clinical relevance of hereditary red cell disorders.
  5. Explain the basis, investigation, diagnosis and clinical relevance of white cell disorders.
  6. Describe primary and secondary haemostasis and control mechanisms in haemostasis.
  7. Explain the factors that affect the sensitivity and specificity of tests of haemostasis.
  8. Discuss the partnership of clinical haematology to other clinical specialisms in the investigation of haematological disorders and patient care.

Indicative Content

Have the knowledge and understanding of physiology and pathophysiology, its investigation and diagnosis as it applies to the specialism in the following

Red cells

  • Normal physiology and bone marrow production of red cells
  • Structure and synthesis of normal and abnormal haemoglobin
  • Classification of anaemias
  • Iron metabolism and effect of iron deficiency and overload on erythropoesis
  • Vitamin B12 and folate metabolism and effect of deficiency on erythropoesis
  • Hereditary and acquired haemolytic anaemia
  • Principles, scientific basis, range and selection of analytical procedures applied in the investigation of anaemia
  • Presentation and laboratory investigation of anaemia, including iron deficiency, megaloblastic, haemolytic and enzymeopathies
  • Clinical interpretation of diagnostic results, treatment strategies and management
  • Molecular basis of abnormal haemoglobins and thalassaemia syndromes
  • The national screening programme for sickle cell disease and thalassaemia
  • Phenotypic and genotypic laboratory methods
  • Diagnosis of red cell enzymopathies
  • IQC and EQA in red cell disorders
  • Abnormalities in adults and children
    • Clinical complications of red cell enzymopathies and haemoglobinopathies
    • British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH) Guidelines relevant to red cell investigation

White cells

  • Normal leucopoeisis
  • Normal structure and function of white cells
  • Granulocytes, monocytes and their benign disorders
  • Disorders of neutrophil and monocyte function
  • Causes of leukocytosis, monocytosis and neutropenia
  • Principles, scientific basis, range and selection of analytical procedures applied to the investigation of white cell disorders
  • Presentation and laboratory investigation of white cell disorders
  • Clinical interpretation of diagnostic results, treatment strategies and management
  • BCSH Guidelines relevant to these white cell disorders

Haemostasis

  • Primary haemostasis, role in supporting normal haemostasis, including blood vessel structure and function; platelet structure and function
  • Role of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in the interaction between blood vessels and platelets
  • Secondary haemostasis, including coagulation factors, structure and function, feedback and control mechanisms, localisation of clot
  • Vitamin K metabolism in the synthesis of functioning coagulation factors
  • Cell-based models of haemostasis and the role of tissue factor
  • Natural inhibitors of coagulation
  • Fibrinolysis, including activation, inhibition and the breakdown mechanism, fibrin clearance and degradation products
  • Use and monitoring of anticoagulant therapyBCSH Guidelines relevant to haemostasis