Endocrinology and Diabetes (SLS126)

10 credits

Aim of this module

This module will provide the trainee with the knowledge and understanding of the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the major endocrine organs in the body. They will appreciate the importance of clinical and biochemical parameters in diagnosing, assessing the response to treatment and monitoring patients with common endocrine disorders. In the work-based module they will be expected to apply this knowledge as they learn to perform endocrine assays using a range of methods and gain experience of the interpretation of hormone results in common endocrine conditions.

  1. Perform the range of laboratory techniques used in the workplace to investigate endocrine disorders and diabetes.
  2. Undertake clinical and laboratory investigation and management of the following endocrine pathologies: pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal disorders; endocrine disorders of calcium metabolism and the gastrointestinal tract; and endocrine causes of obesity.
  3. Perform clinical and laboratory investigation and analysis and management of diabetes mellitus.
  4. Work in partnership with other clinical specialisms in the investigation of endocrine disorders and diabetes.
  5. Interpret and report on clinical and laboratory investigations for endocrinology and diabetes in the correct clinical context.
Number Work-based learning outcome Title Knowledge
1 1,2,3

Perform the analyses to laboratory standard operating procedures on patients with:

  • pituitary tumours
  • hypopituitarism
  • growth hormone deficiency
  • multiple endocrine neoplasia
  • diabetes insipidus.
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2 1,2

Perform the analyses to laboratory standard operating procedures on patients with:

  • thyroid diseases
  • thyroid cancers.
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3 1,2

Perform the analyses to laboratory standard operating on patients with:

  • male hypo- and hypergonadism
  • female hypo- and hypergonadism
  • infertility and/or patients undergoing fertility treatment
  • pubertal disorders
  • intersex disorders
  • gonadal malignancies.
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4 1,2

Perform the analyses to laboratory standard operating procedures on patients with:

  • primary hypo- and hypercortisolism
  • secondary hypo- and hypercortisolism
  • hyperaldosteronism
  • disorders of adrenal steroidogenesis
  • adrenal androgen excess
  • disorders of the adrenal medulla.
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5 1,2

Perform the analyses to laboratory standard operating procedures on patients with:

  • hypo- and hyperparathyroidism
  • hypo- and hypervitaminosis D.
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6 2

Perform the analyses to laboratory standard operating procedures on patients with:

  • hyperinsulinaemia
  • GI hormone-secreting tumours.
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7 2

Perform the analyses to laboratory standard operating procedures on patients with endocrine causes of obesity.

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8 1,4

Perform the analyses to laboratory standard operating procedures on patients with:

  • newly diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes
  • stable diabetes on treatment
  • acute diabetic complications
  • chronic diabetic complications.
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9 1,2,3,4

Identify cases that require urgent intervention and offer clinical advice on the follow-up and/or further management of the patient.

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10 5

Interpret biochemical data in light of the clinical details.

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11 5

Draft written reports on the results of investigations.

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You must complete
2 Case-based discussion(s)
2 of the following DOPS / OCEs
Assessment Title Type
Undertake a a short synacthen test and Interpret and report results from DOPS
Prepare a sample for macroprolactin analysis interpretation and reporting of a macroprolactin result DOPS
Perform HbA1c Analysis DOPS
Perform an immunoassay of a hormone. DOPS
Perform a manual immunoassay with or without organic extraction of a hormone prior to analysis DOPS
Perform a hormone assay by HPLC DOPS
Perform an ELISA DOPS
Perform a hormone assay by LCMS DOPS
Select the tests and prepare a samples for the investigation of a couple with subfertility DOPS
Prepare a sample for an investigation of an insulinoma DOPS
Interpret an External Quality Assessment report for gonadotrophins DOPS
Interpret and report results, from an abnormal glucose tolerance test DOPS
Prepare a sample for the investigation of assay interference DOPS
Explain the short synacthen test to a patient OCE
Phone and discuss an abnormal thyroid function test with a healthcare professional OCE
Explain the test procedure for a glucose tolerance test to a patient OCE

Important information

The academic parts of this module will be detailed and communicated to you by your university. Please contact them if you have questions regarding this module and its assessments. The module titles in your MSc may not be exactly identical to the work-based modules shown in the e-portfolio. Your modules will be aligned, however, to ensure that your academic and work-based learning are complimentary.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Explain, compare and contrast the synthesis, secretion, metabolism and modes of action of hormones.
  2. Describe the use of negative feedback systems and dynamic function tests to differentiate primary and secondary endocrine disorders.
  3. Describe how to derive appropriate reference ranges and the importance of biological variation when interpreting hormone results.
  4. Discuss and evaluate the clinical and laboratory investigation of a wide range of endocrine disorders.
  5. Describe the design, operation and performance of the range of methods used in the measurement of hormones.
  6. Explain and identify when interference can invalidate the validity of the result.
  7. Explain the causes, classification and investigation of diabetes mellitus using the underpinning evidence base.
  8. Describe the design, operation and performance of the range of laboratory and point-of-care methods used in the screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus.
  9. Describe the partnership of biochemical endocrinology to other clinical specialisms in the investigation of endocrine disorders and diabetes and patient care.

Indicative Content

  • Basic endocrinology, hormones and hormone action
  • Methods used for measuring hormones in biological samples
  • Biological variability and its impact on reference values in endocrinology
  • Normal physiology and pathophysiology of:
    • pituitary gland (anterior and posterior)
    • thyroid gland
    • gonads (ovaries and testes)
    • adrenal glands
    • parathyroid glands
    • pancreas
    • adipose tissue
  • Clinical and biochemical parameters for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of:
    • pituitary disorders
    • thyroid disorders
    • ovarian and testicular disorders
    • adrenal disorders
    • endocrine disorders of calcium metabolism
    • endocrine disorders of gastrointestinal function
    • endocrine causes of obesity
  • Causes and classification of diabetes mellitus
  • Clinical and biochemical parameters for the screening, diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of diabetes mellitus
  • New developments in endocrinology