Cancer (SLS321)

10 credits

Aim of this module

This module will provide the trainee with knowledge and understanding of the principles of carcinogenesis, malignancy and metastasis. They will understand and apply cellular pathology to the diagnosis and management of a range of common cancers. They will apply cellular pathology techniques in cancer and gain experience of interpreting results from patient investigations.

  1. Identify and confirm the clinical presentation of a range of common cancers.
  2. Perform to quality standards a range of established histopathological techniques to named cancers.
  3. Identify and evaluate new equipment, methods, or procedures to enhance the contribution of the histopathology laboratory to the diagnosis and management of cancer.
  4. Apply diagnostic algorithms and prognostic indicators to the investigation and management of cancer patients.
  5. Draft preparation and interpretation of reports that involve histopathological findings as part of the investigation of cancer.
  6. Work in partnership with other clinical specialisms as part of the diagnosis and review of a range of common cancers.
Number Work-based learning outcome Title Knowledge
1 1

Plan and implement, using aetiology and clinical presentation information, a diagnostic process to identify common cancers and their prognosis.

Essential

  • Skin malignancy
  • Breast malignancy
  • Hepatobilary malignancy
  • Gastrointestinal malignancy
  • Genitourinary malignancy
  • Respiratory malignancy
  • Gynaecological malignancy
  • Male reproductive malignancy
  • Endocrine

 Desirable

  • Haemopoietic malignancy
  • Neuromuscular malignancy
  • Ear, nose and throat malignancy
  • Osteoarticular malignancy
  • Vascular malignancy
  • Neurological malignancy.
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2 2

Perform the examination of and record details of the macroscopic examination of tissue received from named cancers.

Essential

  • Skin malignancy
  • Breast malignancy
  • Hepatobilary malignancy
  • Gastrointestinal malignancy
  • Genitourinary malignancy
  • Respiratory malignancy
  • Gynaecological malignancy
  • Male reproductive malignancy
  • Endocrine

 Desirable

  • Haemopoietic malignancy
  • Neuromuscular malignancy
  • Ear, nose and throat malignancy
  • Osteoarticular malignancy
  • Vascular malignancy
  • Neurological malignancy.
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3 1

Perform dissection and sample cancer resection specimens received in accordance with local protocols.

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4 2

Perform to quality standards basic and appropriate specialised histopathological techniques as part of the systematic investigation of tissue received from a minimum of 10 different named cancers.

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5 3

Use and evaluate new equipment relevant to the histological investigation of cancer.

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6 4

Present orally the evidence base for three different diagnostic algorithms and/or prognostic indicators used by your unit in the investigation and management of cancer patients.

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7 5

Identify and interpret national and international cancer targets and survival statistics for at least three common cancers.

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8 4,5

In discussion with a pathologist interpret in the correct clinical context the results of:

  • macroscopic examination
  • basic microscopic examination
  • appropriate specialised techniques
  • diagnostic

from specimens received from a range of named cancers.

To include:

Essential

  • Skin malignancy
  • Breast malignancy
  • Hepatobilary malignancy
  • Gastrointestinal malignancy
  • Genitourinary malignancy
  • Respiratory malignancy
  • Gynaecological malignancy
  • Male reproductive malignancy
  • Endocrine

 

Desirable

  • Haemopoietic malignancy
  • Neuromuscular malignancy
  • Ear, nose and throat malignancy
  • Osteoarticular malignancy
  • Vascular malignancy
  • Neurological malignancy.
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You must complete
2 Case-based discussion(s)
2 of the following DOPS / OCEs
Assessment Title Type
Perform interpretation of clinical details from 10 examples of cancer organ resections and prioritise samples according to clinical urgency. DOPS
Perform interpretation of clinical details from 10 examples of cancer resections and plan the investigations to be performed and annotate the request accordingly. DOPS
Perform specimen dissection of a range of cancer resection sample types requiring dissection with a knife and select appropriate samples from those specimens to enable a diagnosis to be made. DOPS
Perform assessment and marking of relevant specimen excision margins to enable correct orientation of the samples. DOPS
Perform dictated description of 10 cancer resection specimens being dissected. DOPS
Perform microtomy on 10 different tissue types from different cancer resections and stain with H and E stain. DOPS
Evaluate and perform a prognostic indicator assessment using the appropriate demonstration technique to a named cancer type. DOPS
Perform microscopical interpretation of stained slides and produce a quality assessment evaluation report. DOPS
Perform microscopical interpretation of stained slides from 6 different major organ types DOPS
From evidence gathered and discussions with relevant clinical colleagues, produce a clinical pathway document detailing the impact of the diagnostic process on the overall patient pathway. OCE
From evidence gathered and discussions with relevant clinical colleagues, produce a reflective account of the learning acquired OCE
Perform microscopical interpretation of H and E stained slides from 6 different major organ types and demonstrate to a Consultant Histopathologist normal and abnormal morphology, relating their morphologic appearance to the clinical condition. OCE
Perform microscopical interpretation of stained slides from 6 different major organ types and demonstrate to a Consultant Histopathologist the algorithmic processes used to determine a differential diagnosis. OCE
In discussion with a Consultant Histopathologist, use information gathered from the algorithmic process to produce a preliminary diagnosis for 6 specimens from different major organ types. OCE
Discuss differential diagnosis at a relevant MDT meeting. OCE

Important information

The academic parts of this module will be detailed and communicated to you by your university. Please contact them if you have questions regarding this module and its assessments. The module titles in your MSc may not be exactly identical to the work-based modules shown in the e-portfolio. Your modules will be aligned, however, to ensure that your academic and work-based learning are complimentary.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Describe the biology of normal and abnormal growth.
  2. Describe the processes of tumour growth, angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis.
  3. Explain the role of oncogenes in cancer development and the molecular basis of oncogenesis.
  4. Describe and justify the use of diagnostic algorithms to aid the diagnosis of malignant disease.
  5. Describe the use of prognostic indicators to provide advice on clinical and surgical treatment in a multidisciplinary setting.
  6. Discuss and critically evaluate the application of clinical and surgical treatment modalities for cancer, including the underpinning evidence base.
  7. Discuss and justify the relevance of national and international targets and achievements in the diagnosis, management and survival of cancer patients.
  8. Discuss the partnership of histopathology to other clinical specialisms in the investigation and management of cancer and patient care.

Indicative Content

  • Principles of the initiation and mechanisms of malignant growth and metastasis, including:
    • genetic deregulation and the role of proto-oncogenes and oncogenic viruses
    • the role of telomerase activation in tumourgenesis
    • cell proliferation
    • signalling pathways
    • apoptosis
    • the role of hormones
    • angiogenesis
  • The principles and significance of clonality
  • The principles of radioactive and chemical carcinogenesis
  • Karyotyping and familial predisposition to certain types of cancer
  • Tumour–host interactions
  • Aetiology, homeostasis, pathogenesis and the main clinical features, including age-related factors, of malignant diseases encountered in organ group-specific malignant disease, including:
    • skin malignancy
    • breast malignancy
    • hepatobilary malignancy
    • gastrointestinal malignancy
    • genitourinary malignancy
    • vascular malignancy
    • respiratory malignancy
    • gynaecological malignancy
    • male reproductive malignancy
    • endocrine malignancy
    • haemopoietic malignancy
    • neuromuscular malignancy
    • ENT malignancy
    • ophthalmic malignancy
    • osteoarticular malignancy
  • Application of a wide range of histological techniques to the diagnosis of cancer
  • The processes of grading and staging of cancer
  • Role of diagnostic prognostic and predictive markers in the clinical management of patients
  • National screening programmes for cancer
  • The role of clinical and surgical treatment options in the management of disease
  • The impact of diagnostic histopathology on clinical outcomes
  • Multidisciplinary team meetings
  • Cancer targets – fast-track from GP to treatment (to include initial diagnosis of organ-specific tumour site, e.g. breast, prostate)