Imaging with Ionizing Radiation 1 (SPE151)

20 credits

Aim of this module

This module provides the trainee with the knowledge that underpins the specialist rotation in Imaging with Ionising Radiation in the second year of the MSc.

Radionuclide Imaging

The trainee can participate in the full range of equipment and clinical functions expected in radionuclide imaging.

Non-Imaging Radionuclide Tests

The trainee can undertake and process non-imaging radionuclide tests and ensure equipment is calibrated and fit for purpose.

Radionuclide Therapy

The trainee can plan and perform radionuclide therapies.

Diagnostic Radiology: Equipment Performance

To enable the trainee to manage the testing and performance of a wide range of diagnostic radiology facilities

Important information

The academic parts of this module will be detailed and communicated to you by your university. Please contact them if you have questions regarding this module and its assessments. The module titles in your MSc may not be exactly identical to the work-based modules shown in the e-portfolio. Your modules will be aligned, however, to ensure that your academic and work-based learning are complimentary.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Discuss the physical processes behind image formation in nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology.
  2. Describe the normal and pathological appearances of images and identify common imaging artefacts.
  3. Discuss the physical principles and operation of radiographic and nuclear medicine equipment.
  4. Explain and appraise the factors that affect system performance.
  5. Critically appraise the legislation and guidance that ensures safe working in the radiation environment.

Indicative Content


  • Principles of tracer kinetic method, pharmacokinetics and the use of radiopharmaceuticals as physiological markers and therapeutic agents
  • Mathematical and physical principles behind the formation of the image:
    • radiographic image
    • nuclear medicine
    • multiplanar imaging CT/SPECT/PET
    • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
    • imaging with non-ionising radiation
  • The physics of radiation interactions with matter in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine
  • The key parameters that define optimal image quality for a range of clinical/research applications
  • Radiation protection for diagnostic X-rays and nuclear medicine, including:
    • biological effects
    • protection quantity and units
    • risk factors and dose limits
    • risk-benefit, cost benefit analysis
    • As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP)
    • radiation working areas
    • protection instrumentation
    • engineering controls
    • dealing with radiation incidents and incident reporting
    • radiation risk and explanation/communication of risk to patients, staff and members of the public


  • Normal and pathological appearances of nuclear medicine and radiographic images
  • Common imaging artefacts (pathological, patient-related, technical and system-related)
  • Results from analyses (e.g. qualitative, quantitative) and the context in which they were acquired


  • Design principles and operation of nuclear medicine imaging equipment
  • Design principles and operation of radiographic imaging equipment
  • Routine quality assurance, assess system performance and perform comparative evaluations
  • Dosemeter and contamination monitors for use in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine

Legislation and Guidance

  • Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999, Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000
  • Environmental Permitting Regulations 2010, High Activity Sealed Sources (HASS) Regulations 2006 and other relevant Health and Safety Regulations
  • Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000
  • Other relevant legislation
  • Awareness of other key documents (e.g. ARSAC/MARS, MHRA/GMP, GCP/GLP, etc.) national and local SOPs, policies and procedures