Imaging with Ionizing Radiation 2 (SPE152)

30 credits

Aim of this module

This module provides the trainee with the knowledge that underpins the specialist rotation in Imaging with Ionising Radiation in the third year of the MSc.


The trainee has a detailed understanding of requirements for the safe production of radiopharmaceuticals, including quality systems, and can advise on radiation safety requirements and regulatory compliance for the radiopharmacy.

Diagnostic Radiology: Image Optimisation and Patient Dose  Measurement

To enable the trainee to undertake the assessment of patient dose and image quality in order to implement interventions for the optimisation of a range of imaging systems.

Radiation Protection

The trainee can, under supervision from a radiation protection adviser, advise on the radiation safety requirements for nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology facilities

Information and Communication Technology

To enable the trainee to support the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure in diagnostic  imaging departments.

Important information

The academic parts of this module will be detailed and communicated to you by your university. Please contact them if you have questions regarding this module and its assessments. The module titles in your MSc may not be exactly identical to the work-based modules shown in the e-portfolio. Your modules will be aligned, however, to ensure that your academic and work-based learning are complimentary.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Explain and evaluate the processes behind the safe production of radiopharmaceuticals.
  2. Discuss and evaluate a range of non-imaging nuclear medicine studies.
  3. Discuss appropriate image analysis/quantification techniques.
  4. Design safe radiation environments that meet the requirements of legislation and guidance.
  5. Describe the delivery of unsealed source therapy.
  6. Discuss and critically appraise the commissioning and quality assurance of radiographic and nuclear medicine equipment.
  7. Describe and critically appraise the IT environment in which radiographic and nuclear medicine equipment operates.

Indicative Content

Radiopharmacy Manufacture and Production

  • Production of radiopharmaceuticals, including PET
  • Principles and operation of cyclotrons and automated radiochemistry for PET
  • Radiopharmaceutical practice
  • Internal dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals, including practical methods of calculating radiation dose to patients and staff in emergency situations
  • Non-imaging nuclear medicine techniques


  • Results from analyses (e.g. qualitative, quantitative) and the context in which they were acquired for nuclear medicine and complex diagnostic radiology techniques
  • Limitations of applied acquisition and analysis protocols as this relates to interpretation
  • Physiological and pathological processes giving rise to image findings
  • The consequences of the result of the procedure to the patient’s overall clinical management, particularly in relation to radiotherapy and radiotherapy treatment planning 

Image Display

  • Hard copy and soft copy display systems
  • External factors affecting image displays
  • Quality assurance of image display systems
  • Image perception 

Radiation Protection Specific to Diagnostic Facilities

  • Measurement and calculation of patient doses
  • Optimisation
  • Design of facilities
  • Shielding calculations
  • Cyclotrons and radionuclide production facilities
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Population exposures
  • Radioactive source transport and waste disposal
  • Accident procedures and emergency planning 

Unsealed Source Treatments

  • The scientific basis and radiobiology of the use of radioactive materials for radiotherapy
  • Unsealed source treatments, including preparation, administration, protection arrangements and decontamination
  • Uptake, planning and dosimetric calculations


  • The requirements of equipment for calibration/QA, both generally and specific to each application
  • Appropriate methods for data reconstruction, pre-processing (e.g. registration, smoothing) and analysis (e.g. region of interest, curve generation)
  • Imaging techniques in radiotherapy (portal imaging, megavoltage imaging, cone beam CT and simulation
  • Gated and time sequence imaging
  • The commissioning process for new equipment with reference to:
    • gamma cameras, including SPECT/CT
    • PET/CT
    • diagnostic radiology equipment
    • the critical examination
  • IT and networking
    • nuclear medicine workstations
    • image analysis software
    • PACS
    • specialist patient management systems, e.g. cardiology systems
    • networking and the network environment
    • system management, configuration control and software release
    • interoperability, DICOM RT, HL7 and messaging standards
    • links to hospital administration systems
    • legislative framework for IT, data protection
    • regulatory standards including IEC601 and the Medical Devices Directive as applied to software