Imaging with Non Ionizing Radiation 1 (SPE154)

20 credits

Aim of this module

This module provides the trainee with the knowledge that underpins the specialist rotation in Imaging with Non-Ionising Radiation in the second year of the MSc.

For the trainee to use a range of equipment and techniques in ultrasound imaging and understand the effects of image acquisition parameters.

Ultrasound Imaging

For the trainee to use a range of equipment and techniques in ultrasound imaging and understand the effects of image acquisition parameters. 

Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

For the trainee to use a range of equipment and techniques in magnetic resonance imaging and understand the effects of image acquisition parameters.

Diagnostic Equipment Performance

To introduce the trainee to a range of equipment, techniques and performance measurements used in non-ionising radiation.

Risk, Safety and Bioeffects 

To introduce the trainee to a range of equipment, techniques and exposure measurements.

Important information

The academic parts of this module will be detailed and communicated to you by your university. Please contact them if you have questions regarding this module and its assessments. The module titles in your MSc may not be exactly identical to the work-based modules shown in the e-portfolio. Your modules will be aligned, however, to ensure that your academic and work-based learning are complimentary.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Discuss the physical processes behind image formation using non-ionising radiation.
  2. Explain the normal and pathological appearances of images and identify common imaging artefacts.
  3. Discuss the physical principles and operation of ultrasound and MRI.
  4. Explain the factors that affect system performance.
  5. Critically appraise the legislation and guidance that ensures safe working.

Indicative Content

Fundamentals

  • Mathematical and physical principles behind the formation of the image
    • MRI
    • Ultrasound including Doppler ultrasound
    • Laser imaging
    • Image registration in multiplanar imaging, including MRI, CT, PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
  • The physics of electromagnetic and acoustic radiation interactions with matter
  • The key parameters that define optimal image quality for a range of clinical/research applications

Clinical

  • Normal and pathological appearances of MRI and ultrasound images
  • Common imaging artefacts
  • Results from analyses (e.g. qualitative, quantitative) and the context in which they were acquired

Technical

  • Detailed understanding of the design principles and operation of MRI
    • Relaxation mechanisms
    • Pulse sequences and image generation
    • Instrumentation
    • The physics of MRI safety issues
  • Detailed understanding of the design principles and operation of ultrasound
    • Linear and non-linear propagation
    • Generation and detection – transducers, piezoelectric effect
    • Interactions with tissue – diffraction, reflection, scatter, absorption
    • B-scanner principles – Time Gain Compensation, signal processing, image storage, array types
    • Resolution – focusing
    • Beam steering
    • Doppler imaging
  • How to assess system performance and perform comparative evaluations
  • Monitoring devices for RF, electric and magnetic fields
  • Measurement of ultrasound beams and ultrasound power levels

Non-Ionising Radiation

  • Sources physical properties, interactions with matter, biological effects, measurement, applications and safety of:
    • UV
    • intense light sources
    • lasers
    • infrared
    • microwaves
    • RF
    • electric and magnetic fields
  • The clinical measurements that use non-ionising radiation, for example:
    • red/infrared light to measure O2 content in blood
    • infrared to measure microvascular circulation
    • UV to measure skin sensitivity
  • The relevant guidelines, documents and standard operating procedures for safe practice with regard to the use of non-ionising radiation in the clinical environment
  • The EM interactions between implanted devices and the MRI environment
  • The safety issues and exposure limitations relevant to different patient groups
  • Rationale behind safety standards