Clinical Assessment and Investigation (SPS100)

10 credits

Aim of this module

This module will provide the trainee with the opportunity to apply their knowledge and basic skills of clinical assessment and investigation used in the diagnosis, care and treatment of patients with cardiovascular, respiratory and sleep problems across a range of clinical settings (e.g. medical assessment and integrated care, critical care and community-based services). Trainees will have the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the role and integration of other related diagnostic modalities, including imaging and pathology, to provide holistic patient care. 
Integral to this module is the opportunity for the trainee to gain a greater understanding of the role of other related diagnostic modalities such as Radiology and Pathology. This module will give the trainee knowledge and understanding of the interpretation and clinical decision making associated with clinical assessment and investigations in the context of differential diagnosis together with an understanding of the principles of operation, data acquisition and quality assurance of other diagnostic service modalities.

  1. Record and integrate a patient history with the outcome of clinical examination and determine appropriate diagnostic investigations for patients commonly referred to cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep OR gastrointestinal, urodynamic science OR audiology, neurophysiology, or ophthalmic and vision science diagnostic services in conjunction with the wider clinical team.
  2. Assist in performing a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, recognising abnormal results/findings and appreciating the implication of results on patient treatment and care.
  3. Identify key anatomical landmarks on images obtained using ionising and non-ionising imaging media in the investigation of patients with cardiovascular, respiratory, sleep OR with gastrointestinal and lower urinary tract (LUT) disorders OR conditions resulting in referral to audiology, neurophysiology, or ophthalmic and vision science services, and describe the limitations and impact of results on patient diagnosis, treatment and care.
  4. In a supportive role assist in performing pathology tests that patients with cardiovascular, respiratory, sleep OR with gastrointestinal and LUT disorders OR conditions resulting in referral to audiology, neurophysiology, or ophthalmic and vision science services will commonly undergo as part of an individual diagnostic plan.
  5. In a supportive role assist in performing safety checks, calibration and quality assurance of imaging and pathology equipment using local, national or international standards.
  6. Devise a diagnostic plan for a patient based on the presenting symptoms and clinical information available, and indicate what the next steps might be (diagnostic or therapeutic), dependent on the outcome of the initial results from a mix of diagnostic modalities.
Number Work-based learning outcome Title Knowledge
1 1

Assist with obtaining a clinical history using a logical sequence/framework, which might include:

  • brief biography
  • history of presenting complaint
  • past history
  • smoking/alcohol use
  • medication (prescribed and other)
  • allergies
  • family/social history
  • concerns and expectations
  • summary
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2 2

Assist in a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in a variety of clinical settings, recognising when results deviate from normal values/findings and appreciating the implication of results on patient treatment and care, for example in:

 Cardiac, Vascular, Respiratory and Sleep Science

  • Medical assessment units – point of care testing, e.g. blood and urine glucose
  • High dependency settings – blood gas analysis, preparation of monitoring andventilator system.
  • Community settings – spirometry, ankle brachial pressure indices measurements (leg ulcer clinics).

 Gastrointestinal Physiology and Urodynamic Science

  • Endoscopy unit – assist with telemetric pH capsule placement; endoscopic placement of manometry
  • Operating theatre – assist with 2D/3D ultrasound pre and post-op assessment, e.g. sphincterotomy, ’search and find‘
  • Diagnostic imaging – assist in the placement of small bowel manometry
  • Ward – undertake hydrogen breath tests on non-ambulant patients, e.g. small bowel overgrowth.
  • Assist with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
  • Continence/flows clinic – fluid management advice, bladder training.
  • Observe pressure/flow studies in patients with special needs, e.g. stoma, mobility issues, neuropathic.

Neurosensory Sciences

  • Neurological
  • Neurological monitoring and
  • Life sign
  • Cognitive function and
  • Screening.

 See relevant rotational modules for integration of clinical experience, competence and knowledge requirements.

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3 3

View and identify key anatomical landmarks and abnormal pathology related to the relevant body systems on images obtained using ionising and/or non-ionising imaging media.

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4 3

Review and assist in making measurements on images on Picture Archiving Systems (PACS).

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5 3

Assist in performing pathology tests with relevance to the routine investigation of relevant conditions, including the production of results, reference ranges and clinical interpretative reports, e.g.

  • full blood count
  • urea and electrolytes
  • liver function test
  • lipids
  • cerebrospinal fluid monitoring
  • sputum culture and sensitivity
  • therapeutic drug monitoring, e.g. carbamazepine.
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6 5

Critically evaluate the role of calibration and quality assurance in pathology and imaging departments in ensuring accuracy of test outcomes and identifying any potential errors or risks when applied in clinical practice.

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7 6

Devise evidence-based diagnostic plans for presenting signs and symptoms and clinical information.

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8 6

Assimilate reports from pathology and imaging investigations from patients typically referred to cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep or neurosensory science or gastrointestinal/urodynamic sciences, present the findings for review by the clinical team and propose a differential diagnosis.

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9 6

Investigate the needs and options for patients referred to physiological services within neurosensory science or gastrointestinal/urodynamic sciences or cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep services as relevant.

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10 6

Work within multidisciplinary teams to support the investigation, treatment and management of patients with relevant conditions to neurosensory science or gastrointestinal physiology and urodynamic sciences or cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep services as relevant.

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You must complete
1 Case-based discussion(s)
1 of the following DOPS / OCEs
Assessment Title Type
Use IT systems to produce a report DOPS
Assimilate reports from pathology and imaging investigations with diagnostic results appropriate to the theme and be able to present the findings for review by the clinical team DOPS
Take an appropriate history using a logical sequence OCE

Important information

The academic parts of this module will be detailed and communicated to you by your university. Please contact them if you have questions regarding this module and its assessments. The module titles in your MSc may not be exactly identical to the work-based modules shown in the e-portfolio. Your modules will be aligned, however, to ensure that your academic and work-based learning are complimentary.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Describe how different cardiac, vascular, and respiratory and sleep assessments and investigations can contribute to a holistic patient approach in the diagnosis, management, prognosis and care.
  2. Explain how these assessments and investigations are used in different care environments, e.g. community, MAU, ITU/CCU, HDU.
  3. Explain how frequently used clinical assessments and diagnostic investigations are selected, the clinical rationale and how they are utilised in decision making.
  4. Explain the principles of and applications of diagnostic imaging (ionising and non-ionising, e.g. CT, MRI, nuclear medicine, PET, ultrasound) used to investigate structure and function in cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep disorders.
  5. Explain the principles and applications of routine pathology tests, including normal ranges requested as part of the investigation of patients with cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep disorders.
  6. Recognise recent advances in biomarkers and pharmacogenomics and the impact of these new technologies in cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep diagnostics and treatments.
  7. Explain how diagnostic imaging and pathology data are captured and stored, including issues relating to storage capacity and access to data across care delivery sectors
  8. Describe how calibration, safety testing and quality assurance procedures (including the legislative aspects of use of radiation) are applied in diagnostic imaging and pathology services, relating these to the processes used in physiological science services.
  9. Describe the patient care pathways relating to common pathological conditions associated with cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep disorders.
  10. Discuss the major risk factors for cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep disorders.
  11. Describe major abnormalities of physiological control mechanisms in diseases of the cardiac, vascular, respiratory and sleep systems.
  12. Describe cellular, tissue and systems responses to diseases of the cardiac, vascular and respiratory systems, concentrating on disorders of growth, tissue responses to injury, cell death, inflammation, neoplasia, normal and abnormal immune responses, atheroma, thrombosis, embolism and infarction.
  13. Describe the common diseases and the basis of common infections of the cardiac, vascular and respiratory systems.
  14. Discuss the role of interprofessional team working in the diagnosis and treatment of patients.

 

Indicative Content

The impact of smoking on health

Common diseases of the cardiac, vascular and respiratory system including the epidemiology, public health and psychosocial aspects including:

 

Cardiac disease

  • Pathophysiology of coronary heart disease
  • Preventive strategies for coronary heart disease
  • Clinical presentation, diagnosis, evaluation and management of disease, to include: heart failure, valvular disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathies, cardiopulmonary disease
  • Overview of rhythm and conduction disorders, syncope and sudden death, pericardial disease and endocarditis
  • Essentials of congenital heart disease (ASD, VSD, PFO, BAV)
  • Anaesthesia, surgery and the heart
  • Diseases of the great vessels and peripheral vessels

 

Vascular disease

  • Peripheral arterial disease
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Arteritis
      • Aneurysmal disease
    • Dissection
  • Cerebrovascular disease
    • TIA
    • Stroke
  • Venous disease
    • DVT
    • Superf icial thrombophlebitis
    • Venous incompetence
    • Post-thrombotic leg syndrome

 

Respiratory diseases and sleep disorders

  • Pathophysiology of obstructive and restrictive respiratory disorders and of sleep-related breathing problems
  • Main preventative strategies for obstructive lung disease and OSA
  • Clinical presentation, diagnosis, evaluation and management of disease
    • Obstructive lung disease, including asthma, COPD
    • Obstructive and central sleep apnoea
    • Lung cancer
    • Pneumonia
    • Pulmonary embolus
    • Restrictive lung disease, including systemic diseases with an impact on the respiratory system (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    • Type 2 respiratory failure
  • Overview of occupational and environmental lung disorders, disorders of the pleura and mediastinum and of cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis and HIV/AIDS, genetic and developmental lung disorders, impact of cytotoxic and other drugs on respiratory system, pulmonary vascular diseases and connective tissue disorders
  • Co morbidity and lung disease, e.g. COPD and heart failure
  • Respiratory assessment and fitness for anaesthesia and surgery